Sol is the central star of the Sol System (also referred to as the Solar System). The system containing a multitude of asteroids and comets, eight planets from Vulcan, the closest planet, to Neptune, the furthest planet as well as hundreds of moons. The Oort Cloud is considered the edge of the Sol System.
Sol (aka Sun) formed around 4.570 billion years ago from a stellar nursery. Like most stars, it was surrounded by a protoplanetary disc in its early history which, over the course of many millions of years, began to coalesce and formed hundreds of protoplanets. Most of these protoplanets collided with each other, forming the current planetary system. Forming with these planets was the young planet Earth which was believed to have collided with another hypothetical planet known as Theia to have created the Moon.
Out of all the worlds of the system, only Earth, Europa, one of Jupiter's major moons, and Enceladus, one of Saturn's moons, had all the essential ingredients to initiate the development and evolution of life within the water oceans. While Europan and Enceladian life could only stay in the subglacial oceans, Earth's lifeforms soon migrated out of the water and begun life on land.
Once the Sun reaches an age of approximately 10 billion years, it will inflate and contract several times, eventually becoming a Red Giant, consuming Vulcan, Venus and possibly the Earth. The habitable zone will move further outwards. After this stage, the Sun will begin to release its outer layers into interstellar space and creating a spectacular planetary nebula for a short time before disappearing from sight. During this time, Pluto will possibly become habitable.
The Sun will then become a white dwarf. This stage in the Sun's life will last many more billions of years. After trillions of years, the white dwarf Sun will evolve into a black dwarf.